Download e-book for kindle: Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine by Stefan Jurga, Volker A. Erdmann (Deceased), Jan Barciszewski

By Stefan Jurga, Volker A. Erdmann (Deceased), Jan Barciszewski

ISBN-10: 3319341731

ISBN-13: 9783319341736

ISBN-10: 3319341758

ISBN-13: 9783319341750

This quantity is produced from 18 chapters, overlaying quite a few facets of DNA amendment and RNA transformed bases. It additionally discusses intimately round RNA, healing oligonucleotides and their diverse properties.

The chemical nature of DNA, RNA, protein and lipids makes those macromolecules simply modifiable, yet also they are liable to harm from either endogenous and exogenous brokers. Alkylation and oxidation express a possible to disrupt the mobile redox equilibrium and reason mobile harm resulting in irritation or even power disorder. moreover, DNA harm can force mutagenesis and the ensuing DNA series alterations can set off carcinogenesis and melanoma progression.

Modified nucleosides can ensue because of oxidative DNA harm and RNA turnover, and are used as markers for numerous illnesses. to operate safely a few RNA should be chemically changed post-transcriptionally. Dysregulation of the RNA-modification development or of the degrees of the enzymes that catalyze those variations alters RNA performance and will lead to advanced phenotypes, most probably because of defects in protein translation. whereas adjustments are most sensible characterised in noncoding ribonucleic acids like tRNA and rRNA, coding mRNAs have additionally been stumbled on to comprise converted nucleosides.

This publication is a helpful source, not just for graduate scholars but in addition researchers within the fields of molecular medication and molecular biology.

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Extra info for Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine

Sample text

4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 29 29 32 34 38 39 44 47 48 Abstract Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) play a key role in translating genomic information and regulating gene expression. tRNA cleavage is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon serving versatile functions in different organisms.

Moreover, tRNA modifications may be important for non-canonical functions of tRNA, such as those performed by tRNA fragments (Durdevic and Schaefer 2013; Anderson and Ivanov 2014). Therefore, we also need to keep an open mind and take into account that some of the observed cellular phenotypes could be due to non-canonical functions of tRNAs driven by the modulation of tRNA modifications. In addition, there is a need for novel model systems to study tRNA modifications. The vast majority of the published research on tRNA modifications has been carried out in vitro, in bacteria, in lower eukaryotes and, to a less extent, in mammalian cell lines.

Torres and L. Ribas de Pouplana experimentally verified, but also it is important to understand the extent to which protein fidelity and/or efficiency is affected when tRNAs are hypo- or hypermodified. Further, a key question is whether in pathological scenarios general protein synthesis, or only a subset of genes, is affected (Novoa and Ribas de Pouplana 2012). Moreover, tRNA modifications may be important for non-canonical functions of tRNA, such as those performed by tRNA fragments (Durdevic and Schaefer 2013; Anderson and Ivanov 2014).

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Modified Nucleic Acids in Biology and Medicine by Stefan Jurga, Volker A. Erdmann (Deceased), Jan Barciszewski


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