By Hal W. Hendrick, Brian Kleiner
This book's fundamental aim is to supply a complete assurance of ergonomics in total paintings process research and layout. It presents a precis of the historic improvement of macroergonomics. It explains how an figuring out of macroergonomics may end up in advancements in things like lowering work-related misplaced time injuries; and describes the tools and instruments utilized in paintings process research and layout. all through, the integrating subject is that the whole strength of an organization--in phrases of productiveness, security, wellbeing and fitness, and caliber of labor existence (QWL)--can't be met until the final paintings procedure is designed to comply with the features of its know-how, body of workers subsystem, and the exterior surroundings upon which it relies for its survival and good fortune. utilizing a sociotechnical structures process, this article discusses the applying of macroergonomics to education process improvement, possibility administration, know-how move, huge scale organizational switch initiatives, workplace and manufacturing facility automation, neighborhood making plans and improvement, and activity layout. for every of those functions, genuine case examples can be integrated. The e-book will attract lecturers of introductory human factors/ergonomics classes as a supplemental textual content or because the fundamental textual content for a direction absolutely dedicated to macroergonomics. moreover, it's going to additionally attract training ergonomists the world over as a "must" upload to their own expert libraries.
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Extra resources for Macroergonomics: Theory, Methods, and Applications (Human Factors and Ergonomics)
Often, I have observed managers perceiving a problem with some aspect of one of the sociotechnical system elements, then developing tunnel vision and "fixing" that specific work system problem. The next thing the managers experience is a series of "ripple effects" on the other sociotechnical system elements which, in turn, create other problems. Not infrequently, these other problems turn out to be greater than the one the manager attempted to "fix" in the first place. I recall one such case in a hazardous industry in which, as a direct result of the senior manager's "fix," the serious accident rate went from an average of one per year to over one per month!
This scheme struc tures an organization such that those at the lowest levels will have a sense of in volvement, not just in how well they perform their jobs or how effectively their work team performs, but in terms of the total performance of the entire organiza tion (Brown, 1994b). High involvement goes much further than either of the other approaches in moving knowledge, information, rewards, and power to the lowest levels of the organization. The high involvement approach can create an organiza tion in which employees genuinely care about the performance of their organiza tion because they know about it, are able to influence it, are rewarded for it, and enjoy the knowledge and skills to contribute to it (Lawler, 1991).
Some examples are as follows (Hendrick, 199la). 1. Horizontal differentiation decisions determine the degree of specialization and departmentalization to be designed into the work system. These decisions thus prescribe how narrowly or broadly jobs are to be designed and, often, how they should be grouped or departmentalized. 2. Decisions concerning the level of formalization and centralization will dic tate the degree of routinization and employee discretion to ergonomically be de signed into the jobs and related human-machine and human-software interfaces and, as a result, the level of professionalism to be designed into each job.
Macroergonomics: Theory, Methods, and Applications (Human Factors and Ergonomics) by Hal W. Hendrick, Brian Kleiner