By M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev
Liquid crystals are fluids with directionality outlined. Polymers are lengthy molecules with a form that may be replaced. As a community, polymers shape rubber-a smooth stable that's in the neighborhood liquid-like and able to large extension. Liquid crystal elastomers region mix of a majority of these curious features, yet with extra, innovative new phenomena-for instance, spontaneous form adjustments of numerous hundred percentage brought about through temperature swap, with both huge opto-mechanical responses, form swap with no power price (Soft elasticity), colour swap with pressure, lasing and photonics, sensitivity to molecular handedness and smooth strong ferroelectricity. This e-book is a primer for liquid crystals, polymers, rubber and elasticity. It then describes the idea and scan of those amazing fabrics for the 1st time as a monograph. labored examples are solved in order that the reader can turn into informed within the box himself. The booklet is directed at physicists, chemists, fabric scientists, engineers and utilized mathematicians on the graduate point and past.
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Additional resources for Liquid Crystal Elastomers
6, the collapse and enhancement of the magnitude of the nematic order by the application of external fields coaxially with the director, or perpendicularly but without director rotation. 4 Molecular theory of nematics We have seen that the form of the Landau-de Gennes free energy established the character of the nematic’s thermal behaviour: the Q3 gives a first order phase transition and T ∗ basically sets the transition temperature. Molecular theory gives some insight into MOLECULAR THEORY OF NEMATICS 21 what sets T ∗ and into how the other Q terms arise.
14(a). We shall be interested in the polymer forms of smectics where, since both the spacers and the main chain often tend to be immiscible with the conjugated side chains rods Fig. , 1982) microphase separation is even more likely. These complex molecules are crosslinked to form smectic elastomers and rodlike crosslinkers can also be important, Fig. 14(c). Another huge class of materials display the same layer structure for analogous reasons – amphiphilic surfactants in solutions and block copolymers in solutions and melts, see Fig.
A good example of a pseudoscalar is the mixed product of three polar vectors: s = [vv × u ] · w . Of CHOLESTERIC LIQUID CRYSTALS 37 F IG . 13. The cross product of the two polar vectors v and u is a chiral (pseudo) vector Ω = v × u . Think of the right hand rule for the direction of Ω which reverses on use of the left hand. course, a product of two pseudo-scalars is a true scalar (just as the product of a pseudoscalar and a polar vector returns a pseudo-vector, and so on). An intrinsically chiral physical system can have pseudoscalar material parameters (coefficients), say, Γ; as a result, there are contributions ∼ Γ [vv × u ] · w to the free energy density which, of course, have to be true, invariant scalars.
Liquid Crystal Elastomers by M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev