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By Harlow Shapley

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These wavelengths are described as lying within the “bandgap” of the structure: they cannot be transmitted, and so are reflected. If we imagine this multilayer stack to be rolled up into a cylinder, we obtain a “Bragg fibre”, in which the wavelengths within the bandgap are reflected by the multilayer cladding and are transmitted along the hollow core. Exactly this approach has been used to produce “Swiss roll” Omniguide fibres, in which a two material multilayer is rolled up to produce a hollow core fibre [Fink et al.

4) Nmodes ∼ V 2 . 2 This estimate becomes quite accurate for highly multi-mode fibres and provides a useful estimate even for fibres with only a few modes. The dimensionless V parameter is itself the product of two other dimensionless numbers. The geometric factor 2π λa represents the ratio of a typical waveguide dimension to the wavelength: it is related to the transverse spatial area available for modes but also controls the importance of diffraction. The numerical aperture NA = n2co − n2cl represents the index contrast in the system: it is related to the range of angular directions available to modes but also controls the importance of refraction.

This pulse broadening can be described by a timing delay per unit length δτ . For a given frequency modulation f = 1/T , the maximum broadening before adjacent pulses start to merge is δτ ≤ T /2. The factor 12 is a commonly used approximation for a Gaussian pulse, and may vary slightly depending on the impulse response of the fibre [Palais 1992]. We now look at each of the components that contribute to pulse spread δτ . 1 Intra- And Inter-Modal Dispersion In single-mode fibres, dispersion has two components: that due to the material having a slightly different refractive index at different wavelengths (material dispersion), and that due to the geometrical features of the waveguide (waveguide dispersion).

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Light and Color Variations of Nova Aquilae 1918.4 by Harlow Shapley

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