By Patrick Irwin
This publication stories the present country of data of the atmospheres of the enormous gaseous planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. the present theories in their formation are reviewed and their lately saw temperature, composition and cloud buildings are contrasted and in comparison with easy thermodynamic, radiative move and dynamical types. The tools and strategies which were used to remotely degree their atmospheric homes also are reviewed, and the most likely improvement of outer planet observations over the following twenty years is printed.
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Additional info for Giant Planets of Our Solar System: An Introduction
G. J. (1999) Cloud structure and composition of Jupiter's atmosphere. Surveys in Geophysics, 20, 505±535. Rogers, J. H. (1995) The Giant Planet Jupiter. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Simon-Miller, A. , P. J. Gierasch, R. F. Beebe, B. Conrath, F. M. Flasar, R. K. Achterberg, and the Cassini CIRS Team (2002) New observational results concerning Jupiter's Great Red Spot. Icarus, 158, 249±266. 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beatty, J. K. and A. Chaikin (eds) (1998) The New Solar System (4th Edition). Sky Publishing, Cambridge, MA.
Instead the structure appears fairly symmetric with mid-latitude winds blowing at 200 m s À1 in the prograde direction and equatorial winds blowing at 100 m s À1 in the retrograde direction, opposite to that of Jupiter and Saturn. The large obliquity of Uranus may be evidence of an o-centre impact of a single Sec. 2c. Major satellites of Uranus. 2 P is the orbital period, AG is the geometric albedo, R is the semi-major axis orbital radius, e is the orbital eccentricity, and i is the inclination of orbit to the planet's equator.
Above the main cloud decks, various processes such as photochemistry act to create hydrocarbon haze particles, of uncertain composition, which gradually settle down through the atmosphere and are eventually pyrolysed and destroyed. In addition to the general zonal structure, Jupiter is found to have a number of large oval structures or vortices. Unlike three-dimensional turbulence where one expects a large eddy to split up into smaller ones (for example a smoke ring rapidly dissipates), weather systems are governed predominantly by two-dimensional turbulence which has the counter-intuitive property that smaller eddies merge into larger ones by a process known as backwards energy cascade.
Giant Planets of Our Solar System: An Introduction by Patrick Irwin