By David Martin
This moment version of Geographic details structures builds at the strengths of the 1st, and accommodates vital contemporary advances in GIS improvement and significant new socioeconomic datasets together with new census facts. Martin provides an available advent to the heritage, ideas and methods of GIS, with a different specialise in socioeconomic functions. This non-technical quantity addresses the wishes of scholars and pros who needs to comprehend and use GIS for the 1st time.
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Extra resources for Geographic Information Systems: Socioeconomic Applications
Centimetre precision is achievable, and these systems also have many important non-surveying applications in navigation and defence. Nevertheless, all previously surveyed data are held in paper map form. Despite various attempts at the automation of digitizing (the transformation of geographic data into computer-readable form), even the most advanced scanning and line-following devices (see p. 86) still require a considerable amount of operator intervention and are not really suitable for many applications.
These changes have taken place at all levels from desktop personal computer (PC) to mainframe and made possible many operations within a PC GIS which could never have been contemplated even fifteen years ago. Green, 1987). This movement has been facilitated by cheaper, higher-resolution graphics, including the availability of sophisticated graphics systems for desktop PCs. The influence of these advances in computing technology on what is practically possible in GIS cannot be overstated, and it must be remembered that the thirty-year existence of GIS and THE DEVELOPMENT OF GIS 25 the other spatial data processing systems has been one of enormous advance for computer science itself.
This progress has been paralleled by massive advances in the quality and sophistication of input/ output equipment such as plotters and graphics screens. Increasingly, data on one machine are made available for manipulation by other CPUs by linking them together across networks, similar to those used by telephones and fax machines. It is now necessary to briefly consider the software component of computer systems. So far, we have carefully avoided reference to programs, but have spoken 12 THE DEVELOPMENT OF GIS in terms of the data and instructions which are processed by the computer.
Geographic Information Systems: Socioeconomic Applications by David Martin