By William A. Craig M.D. (auth.), Alexander A. Vinks, Hartmut Derendorf, Johan W. Mouton (eds.)
Over the prior decade, major growth has been made within the idea and purposes of pharmacodynamics of antimicrobial brokers. at the foundation of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling recommendations it has turn into attainable to explain and are expecting the time process antimicrobial results less than common and pathophysiological stipulations. The learn of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships could be of substantial price in knowing drug motion, defining optimum dosing regimens, and in making predictions lower than new or altering pre-clinical and medical situations. now not unusually, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling strategies are more and more utilized in either easy and scientific study in addition to in drug improvement.
The ebook could be designed as a reference at the software of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic ideas for the optimization of antimicrobial treatment, particularly pharmacotherapy, and infectious illnesses. The reader might be brought to numerous features of the basics of antimicrobial pharmacodynamics, the combination of pharmacokinetics with pharmacodynamics for all significant sessions of antibiotics, and the interpretation of in vitro and animal version info to simple examine and medical events in people.
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
1989, 1991). 8 where the static dose for imipenem and ceftazidime kept increasing as the dosing interval was increased from 1 to 12 h. This demonstrated that time above MIC was the important PK/PD index for these drugs in pneumonia. In contrast, the static dose remained unchanged for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as the dosing interval was increased from 1 to 12 h, signifying that the AUC/MIC was the import PK/PD index. These studies also demonstrated that aminoglycosides and ceftazidime were more potent in the lung than the thigh.
Some drugs have produced a good correlation between optical density measurement and viable counting. However, optical density underestimates the extent of killing by beta-lactams and aminoglycosides with Gram-negative bacilli resulting in longer PAEs than with viable counts (Bergan et al. 1980). Intracellular ATP content measured by bioluminescence not only has a sensitivity of 104 CFU/ml, but it also appears to give longer PAE values for bactericidal antibiotics (Hanberger et al. 1990; MacKenzie et al.
However, clearance of antimicrobials is more rapid in animals than in humans. Many factors, such as inoculum, media, growth-phase of the organism, site of infection, drug concentrations to measure correct drug exposure, presence of neutropenia, and measurement of outcome by colony-forming units (CFUs), survival/mortality, or another form of assessment, need to be considered to develop meaningful conclusions. A. D. A. Vinks et al. A. Craig Introduction There are a large number of in vitro and animal models that have been used to characterize the pharmacodynamics of various antimicrobials.
Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics by William A. Craig M.D. (auth.), Alexander A. Vinks, Hartmut Derendorf, Johan W. Mouton (eds.)