By Wen-Chi Chiang, Tim Tolker-Nielsen (auth.), Yo Kikuchi, Elena Y. Rykova (eds.)
Extracellular nucleic acids have lately emerged as very important avid gamers within the fields of biology and the scientific sciences. within the final numerous years, extracellular nucleic acids were proven to be all in favour of not just microbial evolution as genetic components but additionally to have structural roles in bacterial groups, akin to biofilms. Circulating DNA and RNA were present in human blood and anticipated to be invaluable as non-invasive markers for the analysis of numerous illnesses. additionally, extracellular nucleic acids have attracted awareness as lively modulators of the immune procedure of upper organisms, together with people. This ebook covers the majority of the newly constructing fields relating to extracellular nucleic acids, together with these of simple biology, ecology and the scientific sciences, and gives readers with the newest wisdom on them.
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Extra info for Extracellular Nucleic Acids
1975b; Yen and Marrs 1976; Wall and Braddock 1984). Allele replacement in recipients is dependent upon a cellular recombination system (Genthner and Wall 1984). Based on its (then) novel properties, and because RcGTA functions solely to mediate gene exchange, it was suggested that it might represent a cell-evolved genetic exchange vector as opposed to a defective phage (Yen et al. 1979). However, it appears that an ancestor of RcGTA was present in the last common ancestor of all a-proteobacteria, and evolution of RcGTA from a prophage is the most parsimonious explanation of its origins (Lang and Beatty 2007).
2 DNA processing and transfer during transformation in Gram-positive bacteria that are involved in competence and transformation. Their amino acid sequence homology to the com gene products of H. influenzae range from 12% to 74%. Homologs of these E. coli genes are present in many members of the gammaproteobacteria, such as Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Therefore, these bacteria also use homologs of the competence genes to consume extracellular DNA (Figs.
6 Uptake of Extracellular DNA by Indigenous Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Abstract Extracellular DNA in the natural environment is a source of nutrients and gene pools for bacteria. In sediments and biofilms, gene transfer must occur among bacteria via extracellular DNA because the concentrations of both exogenous DNA and cells are high.
Extracellular Nucleic Acids by Wen-Chi Chiang, Tim Tolker-Nielsen (auth.), Yo Kikuchi, Elena Y. Rykova (eds.)