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By Brian K. Hall (auth.), Max K. Hecht, Ross J. Macintyre, Michael T. Clegg (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1461357497

ISBN-13: 9781461357490

ISBN-10: 1461518474

ISBN-13: 9781461518471

This quantity is the twenty-ninth during this sequence, along with twenty-eight numbered volumes and one unnumbered complement. The editors proceed to target severe reports, commentaries, unique papers, and controversies in of the reports diversity from anthropology to evolutionary biology. the subjects molecular evolution, inhabitants biology to paleobiology. contemporary volumes have incorporated a wide spectrum of chapters on such matters as inhabitants biology, comparative morphology, paleobiology, molecular phy­ logenetics, developmental evolutionary biology, systematics, and the heritage of evolutionary biology. The editors proceed to solicit manuscripts in all components of evolutionary biology. Manuscripts could be despatched to an individual of the next: Max ok. Hecht, division of Biology, Queens university of town college of latest York, Flushing, manhattan 11367; Ross 1. MacIntyre, division of Genetics and improvement, Cornell college, Ithaca, ny 14853; or Michael T. Clegg, division of Botany and Plant Sciences, college of California, Riverside, California 92521. vii Contents 1. Homology and Embryonic improvement Brian okay. corridor creation .............................................. 1 a quick background of the idea that of Homology ................. 1 von Baer's legislation ........................................ four Germ Layers and Ernst Haeckel ............................ 6 Embryology and Homology ............................... 7 Homology: An Unsolved challenge ............................ eight Latent Homology ........................................ eight Serial Homology ........................................ nine universal Origins and customary Inductions ..................... 12 Mechanisms of Gastrulation ............................... thirteen foundation of the Alimentary Canal ............................ 14 starting place of Germ Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . Induction of Meckel's Cartilage ............................ 15 Induction of the Lens of the attention ........................... sixteen improvement of inner and exterior Cheek Pouches .......... 18 choice for elevated Tail size in Mice .................. 19 Regeneration and Homology .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . .

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Metalogous genes are the genetic equivalent of analogous structures or behaviors. Can we relate orthologous and paralogous genes to other classes of homology? As set out in the section on serial homology, paralogous genes are effectively serial homologues. They should be treated as sets within which it may be difficult to assign homology to individual elements. Detailed knowledge of gene and/or protein structure may be required to distinguish orthologous from paralogous genes. This is an important issue when constructing a biochemical or molecular phylogeny, as discussed by Ferguson (1980) and Moritz and Hillis (1990) and in an explicitly developmental context by Shostak (1991, Chapter 22).

An obvious example is tail regeneration in lizards or axolotls. Tail Regeneration in Amphibians Amputated tails regenerate, normally growing back to very close to their original size (Goss, 1969; and see Goss, 1992, for a recent evaluation of the evolutionary utility of regeneration). Developmental processes responsible for regeneration are not those that produced the original tail. Regeneration involves covering the wound with an epithelial outgrowth, innervation of the epithelial cap, dedifferentiation of already-differentiated cells such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts; formation of a blastema of undifferentiated cells, and dependence of blastema formation on a neurotrophic influence from the innervated epithelial cap.

1984, Homology: An empirical view, Syst. Bot. 9:374-381. Treadwell, A. , 1898, Equal and unequal cleavage in annelids, Bioi. Lect. MBL Woods Hole 1898: 93-111. , 1992, Skeletal development in Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae), J. Morpho/, 214:1-41. , 1982, Homology and causes, J. Morpho/, 173:305-312. Wagner, G. , 1989a, The origin of morphological characters and the biological basis of homology, Evolution 43:1157-1171. Homology and Development 37 Wagner, G. , 1989b, The biological homology concept, Annu.

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Evolutionary Biology by Brian K. Hall (auth.), Max K. Hecht, Ross J. Macintyre, Michael T. Clegg (eds.)


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