By Francis McGowan (auth.), Francis McGowan (eds.)
Across the ecu Union, strength coverage is still a hugely arguable factor, regardless of the relative balance of power markets and the shortcoming of shock of strength availabilities and costs which marked prior debates at the factor. The debates on nuclear strength in Germany, at the coal within the united kingdom point out the continued resonance of strength coverage as a resource of dispute on the nationwide point. furthermore, whereas the urgency which the Seventies power crises dropped at coverage discussions may possibly not exist, the emergence of latest matters, corresponding to the surroundings and fiscal liberalisation, have provided new demanding situations for power coverage. those matters additionally come up in a eu surroundings. Early in 1995 the eu fee released a eco-friendly Paper on strength coverage -indeed, because the manuscript used to be accomplished the fee was once finalising a White Paper -and the difficulty should be at the schedule of the 1996 Intergovernmental convention. the end result of those discussions is way from transparent, yet there isn't any doubt that, in a single approach or one other the eu Union can help to form nationwide strength regulations for a few years to come.
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Extra info for European Energy Policies in a Changing Environment
Francs in 1975 to 683m. Francs in 1980), remaining much lower than the 5b. Francs of the non-military budget of the Commissariat it l'Energie Atomique. However, the country's interventionist tradition and fear of energy dependence have allowed a certain stability in policy and have permitted some institutional learning in even these new fields of intervention. The first measures taken in 1974-1975 were mainly either educational, intended to change behaviour in the use of heating (limiting temperatures, reducing the annual heating season, etc), or were of a regulatory type intended to improve the quality of new housing (insulation standards and technical performance criteria).
7). 3 mtoe. 6% per year), high oil prices ($35 a barrel in 2005 at constant prices) and a vigorous energy conservation policy. 6% per year), moderate oil prices ($21 in 2005) and a weak energy conservation effort. 5% stimulated primanly by road transport and, to a lesser extent, by the residentialservices sector. Scenario B predicts an annual growth in final consumption of nearly 2%, brought about in particular by a strong upturn in industry'S energy consumption. 43 Starting from these two basic scenarios, another hypothesis (Scenario C), which adds a vigorous energy conservation policy to Scenario B, is examined.
However, since 1986, energy has retained some political importance for three reasons: the uncertainty of the world oil market (rekindled during the Gulf Crisis), the increase in environmental concerns (with respect to local, regional and global pollution), and the achievement of the Internal Market, which requires a certain degree of change to be imposed on the organisation of the energy industries. Moreover, while energy issues have not been very high on the political agenda, the current government has sought to maintain some legitimacy in this field .
European Energy Policies in a Changing Environment by Francis McGowan (auth.), Francis McGowan (eds.)