By Haraldur Sigurdsson, Bruce Houghton, Steve McNutt, Hazel Rymer, John Stix
Volcanoes are absolutely some of the most amazing and awe-inspiring gains of the actual global. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic good looks and strong, if occasionally lethal, destructiveness. though the super advances in volcanology on the grounds that precedent days, many of the secret surrounding volcanic eruptions continues to be this day. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our current wisdom of volcanoes. via its thematic association round the melting of the earth, it offers a complete resource of data at the multidisciplinary impacts of volcanic eruptions--both the harmful in addition to the worthwhile facets. nearly all of the chapters specialize in the geoscience-related features of volcanism (radioactive warmth resource, melting rock, ascent of magma, floor phenomena linked to exiting magma, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). additionally, complementary chapters talk about the multidisciplinary elements of volcanism; those contain the background of volcanology, geothermal power assets, interplay with the oceans and surroundings, overall healthiness elements of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic mess ups, post-eruption ecology, and the effect of eruptions on organismal biodiversity. as well as its attract educators, scholars, and beginner scientists, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes capabilities as a big details source for directors and officers liable for constructing and enforcing volcanic chance mitigation around the globe. * the 1st and purely reference paintings to hide all points of volcanology * greater than eighty separate peer-reviewed articles--all unique contributions by way of top authors from significant associations of technological know-how around the globe, commissioned for this paintings * An built-in transition from the volcanic procedure via dangers, possibility, and societal affects, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have inspired and formed society * handy single-volume layout with themes prepared thematically--articles offer insurance of 9 assorted elements of volcanology * each one access within the Encyclopedia starts with an summary of the object content material and a concise definition of the topic of the object * 3,000 word list entries clarify keywords * additional studying lists seem on the finish of every access * broad cross-referencing method hyperlinks similar articles * 16 pages of colour will exhibit the technology and pleasure of this usually violent phenomena * huge eight 1/2'' x 11'' web page dimension, easy-to-read double-column structure
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Volcanoes
Magma viscosity is another important factor affecting ﬂow properties of magmas and determining the ability of steam bubbles to rise and escape out of the magma. Viscosity is inﬂuenced by temperature, magma composition, and crystal content. In high-temperature and lowsilica basaltic magmas, the viscosity is so low that gas bubbles can generally rise in the magma, whereas in high-silica low-temperature magmas, the high viscosity inhibits bubble rise; they move passively with the magma in the conduit, up toward the vent (Chapter 14).
To appease the capricious gods, humans have for centuries made the ultimate sacriﬁce. Thus the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas offered humans to their volcanoes. Nicaraguans long believed that their dangerous volcano Coseguina would stay quiet only if a child were thrown into the crater every 25 years. Similarly, young women were thrown into the crater of Masaya volcano in Nicaragua to appease the ﬁre. D. 79 Etna, 1669 Lakagigar, 1783 Asama, 1783 Tambora, 1815 Krakatau, 1883 Mount Pele´e, 1902 Paricutin, 1943 Bezymianny, 1956 Surtsey, 1963 Mount St.
Even Java was not spared. During the climax of the explosive eruption on April 10, 1815, hot pyroclastic ﬂows swept down all ﬂanks of the volcano and wiped out the feudal kingdoms of Tambora on the north side and Sanggar on the east side of the mountain. In the Kingdom of Tambora, the loss of life was so complete that it extinguished the Tambora language, probably the easternmost Austro-Asiatic language at the time, with more than 10,000 people killed outright in the pyroclastic ﬂows. The blanket of ash fallout on Sumbawa also destroyed all the crops, resulting in a famine immediately after the eruption.
Encyclopedia of Volcanoes by Haraldur Sigurdsson, Bruce Houghton, Steve McNutt, Hazel Rymer, John Stix