By Jorge Reina Schement
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Communication and Information, Volume I-III
Vicary reported that he recently tested the “invisible commercial” in a (Fort Lee) New Jersey movie theater. The tests ran for six weeks, during which time some 45,000 persons attended the theatre. ” Examples of research reviews that conclude against the effectiveness of subliminal advertising include those by Timothy E. Moore (1982), Joel According to Mr. 1%. ADVERTISING, SUBLIMINAL • 9 Absence of details for such a provocative claim is, of course, highly unsatisfactory and, without further information, no social scientist or advertising practitioner would take Vicary’s account seriously.
The detrimental effects that television viewing has on achievement scores are thus quite small. The addi- tional consequences for intellectual activity in general are probably more serious. These include the lowered esteem for books, the reduced concentration while reading, the preferences for undemanding entertainment, and lesser ability in the three basic skills—all of which, for some, may be a consequence of greater television use. Those people who are most likely to be affected adversely are (1) those who voluntarily allow television to displace time that might have been spent learning the three basic skills, (2) those for whom opportunities foregone would have been of greater academic value, and, of course, (3) those who watch television for a very large amount of time.
Advertising became especially important in the second half of the nineteenth century as retailers began to advertise products and prices that would bring customers to their stores. Advertising for patent medicines also played a prominent role in the development of advertising, and by the end of the nineteenth century, the firms that would become advertising agencies had already begun to form. Advertising and Psychology Although advertising has a very long history, serious study of advertising and its effects on consumers did not begin until early in the twentieth century.
Encyclopedia of Communication and Information, Volume I-III by Jorge Reina Schement