By D. J. Bell, P. Dunnill, K. Esser, E. Flaschel, M. Hoare, J. Holló, M.-R. Kula, Ch. Lang-Hinrichs, L. Nyeste, M. Pécs, B. Sevella, Ch. Wandrey (auth.)
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Effect of temperature of coagulation and pH of whey on the time taken from acid injection to the initial appearance of whey precipitate. 4 III) pH of whey Good mixing is usually achieved by incorporating a zone of turbulence such as that of the impeller zone in a stirred tank, by jet mixing or by the use of a static mixing device or recycle in a continuous tubular reactor. The turbulent process is used to break up the fluid elements to some limiting size at which viscous forces prevent the turbulent motion and molecular diffusion becomes the controlling factor.
81). They require specific modification and correction for each system 55,96,97). The simplest correlation for break-up usually relates to the maximum stable size of an aggregate which exists in a shear field. Correlations for inorganic aggregates and flocs have been reviewed recently by Tomi and Bagster 75) .. Aggregates larger than the turbulent micro scale 11, see Eq. (20), and hence exposed to break-up by inertial forces due to particJe-particle and particle-surface collisions have maximum stable particle diameters strongly dependent on the impeller speed (NJ, mean velocity gradient (0) or power dissipation (£) in a stirred vessel.
This can create considerable difficulties in high speed rotating machines where the presence of seals provides a source of contamination. The safe operation of centrifuges can also be a major problem since many new processes involve the fractionation of proteins from fermentation liquors where a level of biologically toxic materials persists through several processing stages. The rotating machinery can disperse these substances in aerosol form, causing an environmental hazard. Most existing centrifuges display this problem and without expensive modifications the only alternative is to contain the equipment in some form of cabinet as discussed by Wang et al.
Downstream Processing by D. J. Bell, P. Dunnill, K. Esser, E. Flaschel, M. Hoare, J. Holló, M.-R. Kula, Ch. Lang-Hinrichs, L. Nyeste, M. Pécs, B. Sevella, Ch. Wandrey (auth.)