By Michel Foucault
During this incredible paintings, the main influential thinker due to the fact that Sartre means that such vaunted reforms because the abolition of torture and the emergence of the fashionable penal complex have in basic terms shifted the focal point of punishment from the prisoner's physique to his soul.
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Extra info for Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison
The criminal's soul is not referred to in the trial merely to explain his crime ancl. as a factor in the juridical apportioning of responsibility; if it is brought before the court, with such pomp and circumstance, such concern to understand and such 'scienti6c' application, it is because it too, as well as the crime itself, is to be judged and to share in the punishment. Throughout the penal ritual, from the preliminary investigation to the sentence and the 6nal effects of the penalty, a domain has been penetrated by objects that not only duplicate, but also dissociate the juridically de6ned and coded objects.
Ollyffe). Torture rests on a whole quantitative art of pain. But there is more to it: this production of pain is regulated. Torture correlates the rype of corporal effect, the qualiry, intensiry, duration of pain, with the graviry of the crime, the person of the criminal, the rank of his victims. and the points at which this gesture of piry must occur), the rype of mutilation to be used (hand cut off, lips or tongue pierced). All these various elements multiply the punishments and are combined according to the coun and the crime.
Of course, we pass sentence, but this sentence is not in direct relation to the crime. It is quite clear that for us it functions as a way of treating a criminal. ' Today, criminal justice functions and justifies itself only by this perpetual reference to something other than ilself, by this unceasing reinscription in non juridical systems. Its fate is to be redefined by knowledge. Beneath the increasing leniency of punishment, then, one may map a displacement of its point of application; and through this The body of the condemned displacement, a whole field of recent objects, a whole new system of truth and a mass of roles hitherto unknown in the exercise of criminal justice.
Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison by Michel Foucault