By Robert Stuart Yoder
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Extra info for Deviance and Inequality in Japan: Japanese Youth and Foreign Migrants
It is also students of the higher class whose family can afford a ‘shadow education’, using this extra education to their advantage. Rohlen (1983, p 130) reported that in Kobe about twice the number of students at higher-ranked schools (mostly students from higher-class families) attended juku or received private tutoring than students at low-ranked high schools (mostly students from lower-class families). Other studies support Rohlen’s (1983) findings; in short, the enterprise of ‘shadow education’ is expensive, catering to families with a surplus of income and that puts working-class families at a distinct disadvantage (Woronoff, 1981; Sugimoto, 2003;Yoder, 2004).
Two follow-up studies, one in 1987 and another 11 years later in 1998-99, traced the youngsters’ transition into young adulthood. Both communities are located bordering the Pacific Ocean in Kanagawa prefecture about 30 minutes away from each other by train. Minami is located in an industrial city (given a pseudonym of Shonan) with a working-class population. Characteristic of a working-class population, 80% of high schools in Shonan are low ranked, leading to working-class jobs; most high schools are associated with a particular trade, and are called commercial, industrial and agricultural high schools.
Students must qualify to attend high school and high schools are ranked (based on the hensachi, a school ranking measurement system) from low to high: the lower the rank, the easier it is to enter. Entrance into different ranked private and public high schools depends on teacher recommendation, middle-school grades, aptitude test(s) and high-school entrance examination: the better the results, the higher the rank of high school a student is allowed to enter. As the rank of high school is the most determinant factor for college entrance, academic preparation begins from the cradle in favour of the higher class.
Deviance and Inequality in Japan: Japanese Youth and Foreign Migrants by Robert Stuart Yoder