By Boris Cyrulnik
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Additional info for De chair et d'âme
It seeks to be the methodological means to raise explicitly to consciousness the norms and forms, in themselves and as such, to which natural thinking conforms. It seeks to know thinking and knowledge themselves. The clear consciousness of the ideal of thought is therefore necessary. Providing the ideal first makes possible a judgemental and selective relation to the material. e. the goal towards which all genuine thought ought to strive? The goal of thought is 'universal validity'. What do validity and universal validity mean?
So long as the original experiential directedness of the lived experience [Erlebnis] of the ought, of ought-giving and ought-taking, is not set forth, the already problematical method remains obscure at its very core. The inclusion of the ought-phenomenon within teleological method means that the latter can no longer be seen as a pure theoretical structure. This of course does not say anything against its suitability for primordial-scientific purposes, especially since the criticaltranscendental philosophy of Rickert already sees theory as value-laden and necessarily ought-related.
6 In the last resort psychology offers only formal characteristics; formations of the content of rational values are first shown in history, which is the authentic organon of critical philosophy. The historical formations of cultural life are the real empirical occasion for critical-teleological reflection. Not only does history reveal a multiplicity of formations,  but in this way it guards against relativism. ) The constant change of these formations in the historical process preserves philosophy from historicism, from stopping with particular historically determined formations and dispensing with the apprehension of absolute validity.
De chair et d'âme by Boris Cyrulnik