By Nicolau Beckmann
This e-book is meant to supply an in-depth realizing of 13C NMR as a device in organic examine. 13C NMR has supplied distinctive details pertaining to complicated organic structures, from proteins and nucleic acids to animals and people. the themes addressed comprise multidimensional heteronuclear thoughts for structural reports of molecules within the liquid and reliable states, the research of interactions in version membranes, the elucidation of metabolic pathways in vitro and in vivo on animals, and noninvasive metabolic reviews played on people. The publication is a distinct mixture of NMR equipment and organic functions which makes it a handy reference for these drawn to learn during this interdisciplinary region of physics, chemistry, biology, and medication. Key positive factors * An interdisciplinary textual content with emphasis on either 13C NMR technique and the suitable organic and biomedical concerns * cutting-edge 13C NMR innovations are defined; every time attainable, their benefits over different methods are emphasised * The chapters represent accomplished experiences and are written by means of said specialists of their fields * Chapters are written in a transparent type, and comprise quite a few illustrations and finished references
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Extra info for Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy of Biological Systems
1 ppm Figure 1. Two inverse 2D t3C,1H correlations of a natural abundance sample of the DNA duplex d(TTGGCCAA)2, 6 mM single-strand concentration. , 1992. 7 ppm in the 13C dimension (1024 tl increments), measuring time 13 h. 9 ppm in F1 (1890 tl increments), measuring time 25 h. The 2'/2" and 5'/5" signals are folded in F~, leading to a much higher resolution in the ~3C dimension. aspect is irrelevant. , 1991). Another issue to be addressed is the problem of intense solvent peaks that can obscure signals from dilute samples.
In the case of an 11(I),S system with nonvanishing couplings j(II,I i) (i = 2 . . , for CH2--CHCI n = 2 for each proton, because it is coupled to two other protons). This means that, depending on the size and number of couplings J(I~,I'), the optimum value for A will be shorter than (2J~ls)-1. However, since the value of the direct proton-carbon coupling 1JIH,13C ("120 to 160 Hz) exceeds the normal 1H-~H couplings by more than an order of magnitude, the evolution of homonuclear proton couplings during A can be neglected when transferring from ~H to 13C.
1985). 5Sx[1 - cos(TrJt)] + (I~Sy - I~S~)sin(TrJt). 11) Neglecting the intermediate antiphase terms, this corresponds to an oscillation of in-phase coherence between the two spins with a period of (1ji,s)- 1. This is the same duration as for a refocused INEPT transfer. I '" 13C 11 I I Figure 5. Pulsesequence for heteronuclear coherence transfer via cross-polarization (Zuiderweg, 1990). The two spin-lock fields have to be adjusted according to the Hartmann-Hahn condition [ ~ ( 1 3 C ) B 1 ( 1 3 C ) - - T(1H)BI(1H)] and usually consist of composite pulse decoupling sequences.
Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy of Biological Systems by Nicolau Beckmann