By Eric S. Lander, Michael S. Waterman
During this first-ever survey of the partnership among arithmetic and biology, top specialists examine how mathematical study and techniques have made attainable vital discoveries in biology. Explores how differential geometry, topology, and differential mechanics have allowed researchers to "wind" and "unwind" DNA's double helix to appreciate the phenomenon of supercoiling. Explains how mathematical instruments are revealing the workings of enzymes and proteins. Describes how mathematicians are detecting echoes from the foundation of lifestyles via making use of the stochastic and statictical conception to the research of DNA sequences.
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Extra info for Calculating the Secrets of Life
Which forms two H bonds? 5. Draw a typical DNA melting curve. Label the axes and point out the melting temperature. 6. Use a graph to illustrate the relationship between the GC content of a DNA and its melting temperature. What is the explanation for this relationship? 7. Use a graph to illustrate the relationship between the GC content of a DNA and its density. What is the explanation for this relationship? 8. On a single graph, show the C0t curves of T4 phage DNA, E. coli DNA, and mammalian nonrepetitive DNA.
Base c is a purine that is joined to its partner by only two H bonds. Because A–T pairs are joined by two H bonds, base c must be adenine (A). Its partner, d, must therefore be thymine (T). ■ 27 Genes Made of RNA The genetic system explored by Hershey and Chase was a phage, a bacterial virus. A virus particle by itself is essentially just a package of genes. It has no life of its own, no metabolic activity; it is inert. But when the virus infects a host cell, it seems to come to life. Suddenly the host cell begins making viral proteins.
The rest is in noncoding regions outside of genes, including most of the moderately repetitive DNA and all of the highly repetitive DNA detected by C0t analysis. SUMMARY There is a rough correlation between the DNA content and the number of genes in a cell or virus. However, this correlation breaks down in several cases of closely related organisms where the DNA content per haploid cell (C-value) varies widely. This C-value paradox is probably explained, not by extra genes, but by extra noncoding DNA in some organisms.
Calculating the Secrets of Life by Eric S. Lander, Michael S. Waterman