By Carol Off
Award-winning writer and broadcaster Carol Off unearths the interesting -- and sometimes frightening -- tales in the back of our hope for all issues chocolate.
Whether it's a part of a Hallowe'en haul, the contents of a heart-shaped field or simply a sweet bar stashed in a table drawer, chocolate is synonymous with pleasures either basic and lavish. yet in the back of the candy photograph is an extended historical past of exploitation. within the eighteenth century the ecu aristocracy went wild for the Aztec delicacy. In later years, colonial territories have been ravaged and slaves imported in droves as local populations died out below the tension of feeding the world's urge for food for chocolate.
Carol Off lines the origins of the cocoa craze and follows chocolate's evolution lower than such overseers as Hershey, Cadbury and Mars. In Côte d'Ivoire, the West African state that produces approximately half the world's cocoa beans, she follows a dismal and unsafe seam of greed. opposed to a backdrop of civil struggle and corruption, desperately bad farmers interact in appalling practices comparable to the indentured servitude of younger boys -- youngsters who don't even recognize what chocolate tastes like.
Off exhibits that, with the complicity of Western governments and firms, unethical practices proceed to thrive. sour Chocolate is a social historical past, a passionate investigative account and an eye-opening exposé of the workings of a multi-billion buck that has institutionalized distress because it served our pleasures.
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Extra resources for Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World's Most Seductive Sweet
9 million years ago. This time frame is disputed by other scientists. indd 48 Eatymolog y 8/19/15 4:25 PM tools discovered in a cave in South Africa in 2012—dates back roughly one million years. C P RI MI TI VE P RO TECTI ON R A CKET Wrangham also credits cooking with shaping social relations between males and females. By providing quicker calories than raw food, males had more time to focus on hunting while females focused on gathering and cooking. indd 49 || 49 8/19/15 4:25 PM cow·pool·ing (noun): C The practice of individuals banding together as a group to purchase a side of beef or whole cow and share the meat.
NEO CARNI S M Animal welfare advocates have coined the term neocarnism to critique the ideology behind the production of humanely raised meat. indd 35 || 35 8/19/15 4:25 PM car·rot·mob (noun): C A “reverse boycott” where a group of people gather to financially support an environmentally friendly store by purchasing its goods. 50 in just a couple of hours. org), previously met with shops in the neighborhood to “bid” on his flash mob of shoppers in exchange for a pledge to increase energy efficiency.
Indd 45 || 45 8/19/15 4:25 PM cof·fee nap (noun): A short C nap preceded by drinking a cup of coffee in order to minimize drowsiness after waking. com in 2014: 1. Pour yourself a cup of coffee (while tea and soda may be caffeinated, they have much less caffeine than coffee). 2. Drink the coffee quickly to give yourself a window of time to sleep as it is digested. Iced coffee or espresso is recommended if downing a cup of hot coffee is too difficult. 3. Immediately try to nap. 4. Set an alarm to wake up within twenty minutes, before entering deeper stages of sleep.
Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World's Most Seductive Sweet by Carol Off