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49 also can be viewed as mate manipulation. An unattractive mate can be manipulated into increasing PE if its relatively attractive mate decreasesPE, because reduced, but still nonzero genetic RS is preferable to finding itself unmated or mated to a lower quality individual. , Krebs and Dawkins 1984), many if not most sociosexualbehaviorscould be consideredmanipulative. Mate choice criteria refer to the traits on which individuals may base mating decisions (Trivers 1972). Heritable traits include those for which there is sufficient genetic variation in a populationthat the quality of the offspring genomecan be enhancedthroughnonrandommate choice.

On the other hand, if differential accessresultsin increasedoffspring number,this will be reflectedin sexual selection gradients. Sometimesthe distinctionbetweenME and PE is blurred. For example,in longlived specieswith typically enduring pair-bonds,individuals might increaseparental care (apparent PE) with a resultant increase in the life span of the current mate (functional ME [Oring 1982; Bart and Tomes 1989; Breitwisch 1989]). Females may engage in activities that appear to be ME, but that function to increasemale PE.

1994)? In general, tests of predictionsregardingthe significanceof patternsof dimorphismshouldinvolve species that are carefully selectedon the basis of taxonomic affinities, ecological considerations,and social organizations. , macaws, woodpeckers,jays, crestedpigeons,toucans,puffins) are quite ornamentedand monomorphic,with malesand femalesboth being colorful. Females of these speciesmay derive benefits from bright plumage that are not directly associatedwith mating; for example, bright females may have an advantage in social competition,especiallyjoint territory defense(Wolf 1969; Burley 1981; West Eberhard 1983).

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Avian reproductive tactics: Female and male perspectives


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