Download e-book for kindle: 3-D seismic imaging by Biondi B.L.

By Biondi B.L.

Seismic photos are the most important to brand new exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging offers basic innovations and state-of-the-art equipment for imaging mirrored image seismic information. The publication coherently offers the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and speed estimation - through exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The e-book emphasizes graphical figuring out over theoretical improvement. numerous man made and box info examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the quantity incorporates a DVD that incorporates a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage facts set) of the SEG-EAGE salt facts set and of the corresponding pace version. The DVD additionally contains a entire set of PDF slides that may be used to educate the fabric offered within the ebook.

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Sample text

The reflections from the steeply dipping flanks present an insurmountable challenge for the simple NMO+Stack procedure. Furthermore, the presence of a rugose salt top on the right side of the salt crest presents problems also for the NMO+DMO+Stack procedure. 9. 2. 6: In-line section (CMP Y=8 km) of the interval velocity function. 7: In-line section (CMP Y=8 km) of the RMS velocity function. partial-Vrms_inline-y6800-9200-overn [CR,M] is a potential conflict between the NMO velocity required for the flattish events and the NMO velocity required for the dipping events.

When the velocity function is so complex as to cause non-hyperbolic moveouts across offsets, the simple hyperbolic NMO equation is obviously inappropriate to correct for the time delays of prestack traces. We will examine the issues related to non-hyperbolic moveouts in a later chapter. The most common failure of the NMO+Stack procedure is in the presence of dipping reflectors. To analyze the approximations that are implicitly made when the data are imaged by NMO+Stack followed by zero-offset migration, we evaluate analytically the summation (and spreading) surface of the prestack imaging operator that is equivalent to the application of NMO+Stack followed by zero-offset migration.

4: Geometrical relationship among θ , α and η. 2 CHAPTER 3. APPROXIMATIONS OF FULL PRESTACK MIGRATION Dip moveout (DMO) To overcome the limitations of the simple NMO operator, DMO introduces a dip-dependent correction in the transformation of prestack data into zero-offset data. We will refer to this improved transformation that includes DMO as NMO+DMO+Stack, to distinguish it from the less accurate NMO+Stack. There are several DMO formulations; the original DMO (Deregowski and Rocca, 1981) was designed to be applied after NMO.

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3-D seismic imaging by Biondi B.L.

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